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SERMON ON THE MOUNT

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SERMON ON THE MOUNT

This name is given to the great speech given by the Lord Jesus before his people and before all the people who had gathered. He is recorded in Mt. 5-7 and in Lk. 6:20-49.

From the comparison of both stories, some obvious differences emerge that in no way can be attributed to discrepancies in the story, but rather that in the Sermon on the Mount each Evangelist was directed, based on God’s object, to reveal in each Gospel a prominent facet of the Lord Jesus. , to highlight and expose from the Sermon that which corresponded to the concrete truth.

Also, the mention in Matthew that the Sermon was given on a “mountain” (Mt. 5:1), while in Luke it is stated that it was on “a level place,” has led some expositors to the position that these are two different preachings in different places, although with analogous contents.

Although we cannot at all rule out the fact that the Lord preached the same basic message in many places, adapting it to the listeners and their needs or circumstances, the comparison of both accounts indicates that, despite the divergences in the form To relate it, it is the same event.

The explanation is that the “flat place” does not refer to a plain as opposed to a mountain, but should be translated “level place”; evidently it is a mountain, because the literal translation of Gr. is “And going down with them, he stood on a level place” (Lk. 6 17).

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It can be observed, in the first place, that Matthew does not record here the designation of the apostles, which Luke does give, as well as Mark (Mark 3:13-19), who on the other hand does not record the Sermon, being more interested in recording the works than the words of the Lord.

It fits with Matthew to relate this call to the mission to Israel, which corresponds to the beginning of Luke. 9.

The Kingdom does not have the prominence in Luke that it has in Matthew. In Luke it is those who join Christ and truly follow him who receive blessing. The contrast of what the Messiah says on his authority, with what the ancients said, is peculiar to Matthew.

Luke fully gives the great new morality of loving our enemies, being merciful as our Father is, not judging or condemning, but forgiving according to the divine pattern; Matthew gives direct teaching about practical justice in deeds and words, prayer and fasting, specifically directed against hypocrisy.

In the Sermon instruction is given regarding justice adjusted to all who enter the Kingdom of heaven. Only those born of the Spirit can reach the blessed state of soul in the eyes of the Lord.

This is not a requirement, as at Sinai, but Christ’s description of those who are fit for the Kingdom. This is not a message of grace to sinners; It is not the gospel of God’s grace to the lost, but his words to his disciples; and what is expected of them is personal obedience.

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Sketch.
Mt. 5 not only gives an image of what the blessed are, but it is given with all the authority of the Law and the prophets fulfilled, not weakened, leaving the highest conduct appropriate for the Kingdom, in contrast to what God permitted formerly, and not now, that it is revealed in His Father’s name and the believer’s new relationship with Him.

Mt. 6 talks about the inner life or the ways of man seen by the Father, and the anxieties that could condition the believer.

Mt. 7 deals with proper conduct toward others, whether believers or not, encouraging dependence on God, and exhorting the avoidance of false prophets (no matter how many their gifts), and the practical submission of words. of Christ.

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Bible Dictionary

BETHEL

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BETHEL

is the name of a Canaanite city in the ancient region of Samaria, located in the center of the land of Canaan, northwest of Ai on the road to Shechem, 30 kilometers south of Shiloh and about 16 kilometers north of Jerusalem.

Bethel is the second most mentioned city in the Bible. Some identify it with the Palestinian village of Beitin and others with the Israeli settlement of Beit El.

Bethel was the place where Abraham built his altar when he first arrived in Canaan (Genesis 12:8; Genesis 13:3). And at Bethel Jacob saw a vision of a ladder whose top touched heaven and the angels ascended and descended (Genesis 28:10-19).

For this reason Jacob was afraid, and said, “How terrible is this place! It is nothing other than the house of God, and the gate of heaven »and he called Bethel the place that was known as «Light» (Genesis 35-15).

Bethel was also a sanctuary in the days of the prophet Samuel, who judged the people there (1 Samuel 7:16; 1 Samuel 10:3). And it was the place where Deborah, the nurse of Rebekah, Isaac’s wife, was buried.

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Bethel was the birthplace of Hiel, who sought to rebuild the city of Jericho (1 Kings 16:34).

When Bethel did not yet belong to the people of Israel, Joshua had to battle against the king of Bethel and other kings and defeated them (Joshua 12-16).

When the people of Israel had taken possession of the promised land, in the division by tribes it was assigned to the Tribe of Benjamin (Joshua 18-22), but in later times it belonged to the Tribe of Judah (2 Chronicles 13:19).

It was one of the places where the Ark of the Covenant remained, a symbol of the presence of God.

In Bethel the prophet Samuel judged the people.

Then the prophet Elisha went up from there to Bethel; and as he was going up the road, some boys came out of the city and mocked him, and said to him: “Go up, bald man; Come up, bald! When he looked back and saw them, he cursed them in the name of the Lord. Then two bears came out of the forest and tore to pieces forty-two boys” (2 Kings 2:23).

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After the division of the kingdom of Israel, Jeroboam I, king of Israel, had a golden calf raised at Bethel (1 Kings 21:29) which was destroyed by Josiah, king of Judah, many years later (2 Kings 23:15). .

Bethel was also a place where some of the Babylonian exiles who returned to Israel in 537 BC gathered. (Ezra 2:28).

The prophet Hosea, a century before Jeremiah, refers to Bethel by another name: “Bet-Aven” (Hosea 4:15; Hosea 5:8; Hosea 10:5-8), which means ‘House of Iniquity’, ‘House of Nothingness’, ‘House of Vanity’, ‘House of Nullity’, that is, of idols.

In Amos 7: 12-13 the priest Amaziah tells the prophet Amos that he flee to Judah and no longer prophesy in Bethel because it is the king’s sanctuary, and the head of the kingdom.

The prophet Jeremiah states that “the house of Israel was ashamed of Bethel” (Jeremiah 48:13), because of their idolatry and, specifically, the worship of the golden calf.

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Bible Dictionary

PUTEOLI

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PUTEOLI

(lat.: “small fountains”).
Two days after arriving in Rhegium, the ship carrying Paul arrived at Puteoli, which was then an important maritime city.

The apostle found Christians there, and enjoyed their hospitality (Acts 28:13).

It was located on the northern coast of the Gulf of Naples, near the site of present-day Pouzzoles.

The entire surrounding region is volcanic, and the Solfatare crater rises behind the city.

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Bible Dictionary

PUT (Nation)

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PUT

Name of a nation related to the Egyptians and neighbors of their country (Gen. 10:6).

Put is mentioned with Egypt and other African countries, especially Libya (Nah. 3:9) and Lud (Ez. 27:10; Is. 66:19 in the LXX. Put appears between Cush and Lud in Jer. 46:9; Ez. 30:5).

In the LXX he is translated as Libyans in Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Josephus also identifies it with Libya (Ant. 1:6, 2), but in Nah. 3.9 is distinguished from the Libyans.

Current opinion is divided between Somalia, Eastern Arabia and Southern Arabia (Perfume Coast).

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Bible Dictionary

PURPLE

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PURPLE

A coloring substance that is extracted from various species of mollusks. The ancient Tyrians used two types of them: the “Murex trunculus”, from which the bluish purple was extracted, and the “Murex brandaris”, which gave the red.

The ink of its coloring matter varies in color depending on the region in which it is fished.

Piles of murex shells, artificially opened, have been discovered in Minet el-Beida, port of ancient Ugarit (Ras Shamra), which gives evidence of the great antiquity of the use of this purple dye (see UGARIT).

Due to its high price, only the rich and magistrates wore purple (Est. 8:15, cf. the exaltation of Mordecai, v. 2, Pr. 31:22; Dan. 5:7; 1 Mac. 10 :20, 62, 64; 2 Mac. 4:38; cf. v 31; Luke 16:19; Rev. 17:4).

The rulers adorned themselves in purple, even those of Midian (Judg. 8:26). Jesus was mocked with a purple robe (Mark 15:17).

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Great use had been made of purple-dyed fabrics for the Tabernacle (Ex. 25:4; 26:1, 31, 36) and for the high priest’s vestments (Ex. 28:5, 6, 15, 33; 39: 29). The Jews gave symbolic value to purple (Wars 5:5, 4).

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Bible Dictionary

PURIM

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PURIM

(Heb., plural of “luck”).
Haman cast lots to determine a day of good omen for the destruction of the Jews.

As Haman’s designs were undone, the liberation of the Jews was marked by an annual festival (Est. 3:7; 9:24-32) on the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the month of Adar.

This festival is not mentioned by name in the NT, although there are exegetes who assume that it is the one referred to in Jn. 5:1.

This festival continues to be celebrated within Judaism: the book of Esther is read, and curses are pronounced on Haman and his wife, blessings are pronounced on Mordecai and the eunuch Harbonah (Est. 1:10; 7: 9).

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PURIFICATION, PURITY

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PURIFICATION, PURITY

In the Mosaic Law four ways to purify oneself from contamination were indicated:

(a) Purification of contamination contracted by touching a dead person (Num. 19; cf. Num. 5:2, 3),

(b) Purification from impurity due to bodily emissions (Lev. 15; cf. Num. 5:2, 3).

(c) Purification of the woman in labor (Lev. 12:1-8; Luke 2:21-24).

(d) Purification of the leper (Lev. 14).

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To this, the scribes and Pharisees added many other purifications, such as washing hands before eating, washing vessels and dishes, showing great zeal in these things, while inside they were full of extortion and iniquity (Mark 7: 2-8).

In Christianity the necessary purification extends:

to the heart (Acts 15:9; James 4:8),
to the soul (1 Pet. 1:22), and
to the conscience through the blood of Christ (Heb. 9:14).

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